Chicago Board of Trade
|Chicago Board of Trade|
|Key People||See CME Group|
|Products||Futures and options on futures: agricultural, interest rates, Dow stock indexes, precious metals|
The former Chicago Board of Trade (officially, the Board of Trade of the City of Chicago) is the oldest and one of the largest futures exchanges in the world.
In July 2007, the 159-year-old Chicago Board of Trade was acquired by Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME) to form CME Group. The union of the two exchanges established CME Group as the world's largest and possibly most diverse exchange, with products spanning all major asset classes.
The Chicago Board of Trade was founded on April 3, 1848, by 83 merchants at 101 South Water Street. It developed standardized futures contracts in 1865. Over the years the exchange established itself as an icon for futures trading and finance in the City of Chicago, nationally and internationally.
At its outset, it was created for the expressed purpose of organizing and standardizing transactions for grains. It also established an independent clearing house in 1925, the Board of Trade Clearing Corporation, to guarantee trades, a revolutionary concept at the time.
In 1865 the Chicago Board of Trade took steps to formalize grain trading by developing standardized agreements called futures contracts.
For years, the CBOT rightfully characterized itself as "the oldest and largest futures exchange in the world." It had a thriving grain and oilseed futures business that took off as other countries imported U.S. grain products in the 1970s, and it had created a number of benchmark financial products including U.S. Treasury bond futures and GNMA futures, among others. In addition, the first exchange-traded options exchange, the Chicago Board Options Exchange, launched in 1973, was the Chicago Board of Trade's brainchild.
As globalization of the futures business spawned new exchanges and as other exchanges introduced what became highly successful, high-volume products, CBOT could no longer make the claim of "largest," even in Chicago. Chicago Mercantile Exchange, the CBOT's crosstown "rival" eclipsed CBOT's trading volume before the turn of the 21st century. Then after years of speculation that the two exchanges would one day merge, they did. In October 2006, CME approached the then-publicly-traded CBOT with an offer to buy, which eventually was accepted by the CBOT board and shareholders. In July 2007, the merger was finalized.
With the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago on one side and the once-Continental Bank on its other, the historic deco art Board of Trade building stands at the foot of Chicago's financial district on LaSalle Street. That building, in which is etched "Chicago Board of Trade," will continue to be used, encasing all CME Group trading floor operations beginning in early 2008 as the CME's floor-traded legacy products move off of the CME trading floor at 20 South Wacker Drive, Chicago. Given the strong move from the floor-traded model to electronic trading by CBOT and CME (more than 75 percent electronic in 2007), one trading floor will accommodate what is left of floor-traded products. (See CME Group for more history.)
On June 2, 2008, it was announced that the CBOE and CME had, for $1 billion, settled a court case regarding who owns the CBOE, ending an almost two-year lawsuit that had prevented the CBOE from merging with another exchange or going public. The settlement provided full CBOT members with an 18 percent stake in the CBOE and $300 million in cash, terms worth roughly $1 billion with a $4 billion valuation of the options market. To qualify for the settlement, CBOT members had to have valid trading rights at the CBOE and own 10,251 shares of the CME Group. Rejected settlements ranged between $850 million and $1.3 billion.